What is the appropriate time to replace the old brake pads?

What is the appropriate time to replace the old brake pads?
Worn brake pads are the signal that give you an idea about the entire brake system. What is more, it enables you to recommend a brake caliper repair kits that makes the heavy duty vehicle to like-new condition.
Principal of Inspection
These are the main rules while making an inspection on brake pads;
Both pads and their thicknesses should be to be considered and inspected. Judging only one pad may lead to wrong ideas.
You should not take rust or corrosion lightly. Corrosion on the caliper and pads is a signal for coating and plating. Corrosion between friction material and backing plate should be observed because it moves around this area. Delamination might happen and it makes friction material to be separated and diminish effectiveness of brake pad.
Guide pins, boots and slides are other components to be observed. Anything that happened to these components directly related to degradation of brake caliper.
Calculating percentage of thickness to predict the life left misguides you. The best way to estimate the percentage of material worn on a brake pad is to be aware of how much friction material was present. Every heavy duty vehicle has its own “minimum wear specification”
Types of wear
There are types of wear such as even wear, inner pad wear, outer pad wear, tapered pad wear. The desired outcome should be come out for both brake pads and both brake calipers on an axle wear at the same rate.
Even wear is a signal that brake pads and brake calipers have been functioning accurately. However, it is recommended to service the guide pins.
Since wear sensors are rarely located on the outer pad, conditions that lead to the outer brake pad to be worn out at a higher rate than the inner pads are rare. Sticky guide pins or slides leads to increased wear. Outer brake pad wear is a sign that outer pistons are seized when the brake caliper has opposed piston design.
Inner pad wear may occur mostly because of seized caliper guide pin or slides. When this happens, the piston does not float and the regulator force between the pads and the inner assumes all work. Additionally, inner pad wear happens when the caliper piston does not go back to resting position. In order to remediate inner pad wear, follow the same process while fixing outer pad wear as well as examining hydraulic brake system and the brake caliper for leftover pressure, guide pin hole, piston boot impairment
If the brake pad becomes shaped like a wedge or tapered, it means that the caliper might have too much movement or one side of the pad is seized in the bracket. For some calipers and vehicles, tapered wear might be seen as normal. Improper pad installation may lead to this kind of wear. Unless make sure that the hardware and brake caliper applies the pads with equal force, tapered wear cannot be corrected.

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